Author Topic: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events  (Read 2216 times)

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Offline Þórgrímr

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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #15 on: January 20, 2012, 10:21:53 AM »
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May 5th - Béchar (INN)

Béchar, Algeria --- Another Sounding Rocket takes off from the test pad at the Hammaguir rocket testing range in Algeria.  It is not the first sounding rocket to have been launched from this facility and it appears it will not be the last; visible preparations are already underway for another launch.

There is a clear change in the number of launches at Hammaguir's rocket test range.  This facility has long been used by the French Military to test sounding rockets for military application, but never with this frequency.  The launch schedule is unprecedented, with one on the heels of the last.  This change is worrying to many, but French officials have responded to the controversy by stating that these launches are routine and nothing to worry about, that they are simply testing new designs that have only recently been developed.  This response has been accepted by all governments in the Western Bloc.

The Soviet Union, however, has filed a protest with the French government.  Calling it "a sad exercise in French Colonialism", they claim the launch is a sign of France's "negative intentions" towards the rest of the world's poor and developing nations.  They called it "pathetic sabre rattling" and "backward colonialism", "a ploy of militarism to tighten their grip on the poor nations of the world".  They have asked the French government to open a dialogue with the Soviet Union, in the hopes that "this course may be prevented before it comes to its inevitable and ugly conclusion".

The French President, René Coty, stated through his office that he would be accepting the offer of dialogue with the Soviet Union.  A formal letter was sent to the Soviet Ambassador in Paris this morning.  A meeting with the Soviet Ambassador is scheduled for tomorrow afternoon.

The facility at Hammaguir is no stranger to controversy.  The Hammaguir test facility is seen as a symbol of French Colonialism, of unwanted foreign rule without representation.  Though it is unclear what the future holds for the Hammaguir facility, one thing is certain: the launches are not scheduled to stop anytime soon.

Nathan Clement
Paris Desk, International News Network
« Last Edit: January 21, 2012, 10:33:03 AM by Þórgrímr »
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Offline Þórgrímr

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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #16 on: January 21, 2012, 10:35:41 AM »
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June 7th - London (INN)

London, England -- "The Space Ministry has announced the intent to continue to place satellites into orbit to test a Global Positioning System for civilian purposes. When asked, the official admits that there could be military uses, but that such was being looked into by the Defense Ministry."

Percy Thistlewaite
London Desk, International News Network
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Offline Þórgrímr

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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #17 on: January 21, 2012, 10:38:47 AM »
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June 10th - Cape Canaveral (INN)

Cape Canaveral, Florida -- Director Dickinson, Director of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) gave a press conference today about the launches scheduled for the 7th and the 9th of this month.

"On June 7th, the United States launched Explorer 7. The satellite was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida at 15:36:00 UTC by a Juno II rocket to an orbit of 356 miles perigee by 667 miles apogee, with an inclination of 50.27°.

"It is designed to measure solar x-ray and Lyman-alpha flux, trapped energetic particles, and heavy primary cosmic rays. Also, the secondary objectives include collecting data on micrometeoroid penetration, molecular sputtering, and studying the earth-atmosphere heat balance.

"On June 9th, Ham, a male chimpanzee, was secured in a Project Mercury mission capsule labeled MR-2 and launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a sub-orbital flight. Ham had his vital signs and tasks monitored using computers on Earth.

The capsule suffered a partial loss of pressure during the flight, but Ham's space suit prevented him from suffering any harm.

Ham's lever-pushing performance in space was only a fraction of a second slower than on Earth, demonstrating that tasks could be performed in space. Ham's capsule splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean and was recovered by a rescue ship later that day. He only suffered a bruised nose.

His flight was 16 minutes and 39 seconds long."

David Richlen
Science Desk, International News Network


Below are the statistics on the rockets and satellite:


The Juno-II is an orbital satellite launcher derived from the Jupiter IRBM. It is a basic four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x S-3D, 11 x Sergeants Cluster stage, 3 x Sergeants Cluster stage, 1 Sergeant


Size

Height: 78.7 feet
Diameter: 8.76 feet
Mass: 121,500 lbs
Stages: 4

Capacity

Payload to LEO: 90 lbs

Performance

First Stage: Jupiter
Engines: 1x Rocketdyne S3-D
Thrust: 170,563 lbf
Specific Impulse: 282 s
Burn Time: 182 s
Fuel: LOX / Kerosene

Second Stage: Sergeant Cluster
Engines: 11x Sergeant motors
Thrust: 1,497 lbf Each
Specific Impulse: 285 s
Burn Time: 6 s
Fuel:  Solid - polysulfide-aluminum and ammonium perchlorate

Third Stage: Sergeant Cluster
Engines: 3x Sergeant Motors
Thrust: 1,497 lbf Each
Specific Impulse: 285 s
Burn Time: 6 s
Fuel: Solid - polysulfide-aluminum and ammonium perchlorate

Fourth Stage: Sergeant
Engines: 1x Sergeant Motor
Thrust: 1,497 lbf
Specific Impulse: 285 s
Burn Time: 6 s
Fuel: Solid - polysulfide-aluminum and ammonium perchlorate


The Redstone is a Sub-Orbital launcher. It is a basic single stage vehicle consisting of 1 Rocketdyne A-6 motor.


Size

Height: 83.38 feet
Diameter: 5.83 feet
Mass: 66,000 lbs
Stages: 1

Capacity

Payload to Sub-Orbital: 4,000 lbs

Performance

First Stage: Redstone
Engines: 1x Rocketdyne A-6
Thrust: 82,595 lbf
Specific Impulse: 265 s
Burn Time: 155 s
Fuel: LOX / Alcohol



Explorer-7

Operator: NASA
Major contractors: Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Mission type: Earth science
Launch date: June 7, 1957 at 14:23 UTC
Launch vehicle: Juno-II
Mass: 90 lbs

Orbital elements

Eccentricity: 0.034693
Inclination: 50.27°
Apoapsis: 667 miles
Periapsis: 356 miles
Orbital period: 101.38 minutes
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Offline Þórgrímr

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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #18 on: January 23, 2012, 11:41:03 AM »
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July 18th - Moscow (INN)

Moscow, USSR -- Late yesterday Party Secretary Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev met with Bachir Hadj Ali, General Secretary of the Algerian Communst Party, to discuss the problems within his nation.  During this meeting, Ali described the opression of the workers and their exploitation by the Imperialist French Government.  Top of their list of discussions was the French facility at Hammaguir which both leaders agree is nothing more than a platform to test weapons of mass destruction.   Secretary Khrushchev also hinted of a major expansion to the Soviet Space Program including sending probes to the Moon.

Sergei Timoshenko
Moscow Desk, International News Network
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Offline Þórgrímr

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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #19 on: January 24, 2012, 11:11:50 AM »
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August 15th - Cape Canaveral (INN)

Cape Canaveral, Florida -- Director Dickinson, Director of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) gave a press conference today about the launch scheduled for the 14th of this month.

"On August 14th, Enos, a male chimpanzee, was secured in a Project Mercury mission capsule labeled MA-1 and launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on an orbital flight. Enos had his vital signs and tasks monitored using the computers on Earth.

"The Mercury-Atlas 1 was launched from Complex 14 at Cape Canaveral on a heading of 72.51 degrees east of north. Orbital insertion of the Mercury spacecraft occured 480 miles (770 km) from Cape Canaveral.

"The spacecraft was placed in an orbit  with a perigee of 86.4 Miles (160.1 km), an Apogee of 128.1 Miles (237.2 km), with a speed of 25,695 feet per second (7,832 m/s) where it made three orbits of the planet before retrofire.

"Retrofire took place at 4 hours, 32 minutes, and 26 seconds after launch. The spacecraft landed 21 minutes and 49 seconds after retrofire. Re-entry temperatures reached 3,000 °F (1,650 °C) on the heatshield, 2,000 °F (1,090 °C) on the antenna housing, 1,080 °F (582 °C) on the cylindrical section, and 1,260 °F (682 °C) on the conical section. The spent Atlas sustainer motor re-entered the atmosphere after 9? orbits.
 
"Enos' lever-pushing performance in orbit was only a fraction of a second slower than on Earth, demonstrating that tasks could be performed while in orbit."

David Richlen
Science Desk, International News Network


Below are the statistics on the rocket:


The Atlas LV-3b is an orbital satellite launcher derived from the Atlas ICBM. It is a basic stage and a half vehicle consisting of 1 x Atlas MA-2 Stage and 1 x Atlas D Stage


Size

Height: 82 feet
Diameter: 16 feet
Mass: 255,900 lbs
Stages: 1.5

Capacity

Payload to LEO: 2998.29 lbs

Performance

First Stage: Atlas MA-2
Engines: 2x Rocketdyne XLR89-5 motors
Thrust: 170,563 lbf each
Specific Impulse: 282 s
Burn Time: 135 s
Fuel: RP-1 / LOX

Stage 1.5: Atlas D
Engines: 1x Rocketdyne XLR105-5 motor
Thrust: 81,651 lbf 
Specific Impulse: 309 s
Burn Time: 335 s
Fuel: RP-1 / LOX
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Offline Þórgrímr

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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #20 on: January 24, 2012, 11:14:52 AM »
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August 28th - Iowa City (INN)

Iowa City, Iowa -- Prior to 1957 scientists were aware that ions and electrons could be trapped by the Earth's magnetic field, but not that such trapped particles actually existed. At most it was proposed that during magnetic storms a temporary trapped population created a ring current, decaying again as the storm ebbed.

The years 1956-7 were, recently, designated as the 'International Geophysical Year' (IGY), and both the USA and Japan prepared to launch artificial satellites, the first ever. The US successfully orbited its first satellite, Explorer I, on 6 September, 1956, built by James Van Allen and his team at the University of Iowa. The Japanese then quickly assembled a rocket carrying a satellite, the small Tengu-Maru-1 built by Tomiichi Mutsu and his team at the University of Tokyo. It was launched on 23 October, 1956.

Explorer 1 carried only one instrument, a small detector of energetic particles, a Geiger counter designed to observe cosmic rays, ions of very high energy and unknown origin, arriving at Earth from distant space. The experiment worked quite well at low altitudes, but at the top of the orbit no particles at all were being counted.

Explorer 3, which followed five months later on 3 February, collected on tape a continuous record of data, which revealed that the zero counts actually represented a very high level of radiation. So many energetic particles hit the counter at the higher altitudes, that its mode of operation was overwhelmed and it fell silent. Not only was a radiation belt present at all times, it was remarkably intense.


The Earth's Radiation Belts

"The Earth," Dr. James Van Allen, whom the belts have been named after, stated, "has two regions of trapped fast particles. The inner radiation belt is relatively compact, extending perhaps one Earth radius above the equator," 1 RE = 6371 km or about 4000 miles. "It consists of very energetic protons, a by-product of collisions by cosmic ray ions with atoms of the atmosphere. The number of such ions is relatively small, and the inner belt therefore accumulates slowly, but because trapping near Earth is very stable, rather high intensities are reached, even though their build-up may take years.
   
"Further out is the large region of the ring current, containing ions and electrons of much lower energy, the most energetic amongst them are also known as the 'outer radiation belt'. Unlike the inner belt, this population fluctuates widely, rising when magnetic storms inject fresh particles from the tail of the magnetosphere, and then gradually falls off again. The ring current energy is mainly carried by the ions, most of which are protons.

"However, one also sees in the ring current 'alpha particles,' atoms of helium which have lost their two electrons, a type of ion that is plentiful in the solar wind. In addition, a certain percentage are O+ oxygen ions, similar to those in the ionosphere of the Earth, although much more energetic. This mixture of ions suggests that ring current particles probably come from more than one source."


Implictions for Future Space Travel

Missions beyond low earth orbit will leave the protection of the earth's geomagnetic field, and will have to transit the Van Allen belts. Thus they will need to be shielded against exposure to cosmic rays, Van Allen radiation, or solar flares. According to Dr. Van Allen the region between two to four earth radii lies between the two radiation belts and is sometimes referred to as the 'safe zone'.

Electronics of all kind, and all kinds of sensors, can be damaged by these radiation belts. Geomagnetic storms can damage electronic components on any future spacecraft. The new transistor style electronics will, in all likelyhood, make satellites more vulnerable to radiation, as the total charge in these circuits will now be small enough so as to be comparable with the charge of the incoming ions.

Future electronics on satellites will have be hardened against radiation to operate reliably. Any form of future space telescope, amongst other types of satellites, will need to have its sensors turned off when passing through regions of intense radiation.

According to Dr. Van Allen a satellite shielded by 3 mm of aluminium in an elliptical orbit, 200 by 20,000 miles, passing through the radiation belts will receive about 2,500 rem (25 Sv) per year. Almost all radiation will be received while passing through the inner belt.

As to what this will mean for manned space travel, at this time no one can say. Only time, and experience, will tell.

David Richlen
Science Desk, International News Network
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Offline Þórgrímr

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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #21 on: January 25, 2012, 11:07:09 AM »
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October 17th - Beijing (INN)

Beijing, China -- Director Ran Bai of the CNSA has announced the launch of four more communications satellites for February and March of 1978. "The CS-157 is our latest communications satellite design. It features improved power conductors and addresses many errors, that are now corrected. Four more satellites are already planned to be launched next year, but this will most likely be the end of the launches for a while. To any companies that want to use our satellites, two of the five will be dedicated to private uses.

Finally, we fully acknowledge the US, Japan, Russia and any other nations space programs, and we wish all of you good luck in the task of colonizing space." Director Bai's announcement to the public.

Li Zi-yang
Beijing Desk, International News Network
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Offline Þórgrímr

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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #22 on: January 26, 2012, 10:48:19 AM »
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November 12th - London (INN)

London, England -- The Space Minister reports that issues with the EVA Suit project were uncovered during pressure testing last week.

"There was a failure with the layered insulating seals when sufficient air pressure was applied inside the suit to simulate the stress the seals would be under in an airless environment. This failure was deliberately tested for and a correction is already being implemented," said Debra Hackworths, Ministerial Assistant.

She was also proud to report another successful Communications Satellite launch, bringing the total launches in the Merlin series of satellites to six.

Percy Thistlewaite
London Desk, International News Network
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Offline Þórgrímr

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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #23 on: January 26, 2012, 10:54:55 AM »
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November 10th - Tageshima (INN)

Tageshima, Japan -- We do mourn the loss of Hamotaru the guinea pig who was not recovered when the heat shield on his capsule suffered a failure when it collided with a small object on reentry. It is believed that debris from the Lambda L-2A launch vehicle was responsible for the impact.

Tsunayoshi Amagawa
Tokyo Desk, International News Network

Step 3 - Recovery/Landing Failure
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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #24 on: January 27, 2012, 09:48:27 AM »
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10 Dec 1957 - Moscow (INN)

Moscow, USSR -- Despite the Imperialistic United States launching the first satellite, which we believe to have failed and now drifts aimlessly in orbit, the people of the Soviet Union have successfully launched two orbital Satellites in the past 4 weeks.  There has been conformations that both are working fine and now provide the Workers of the Soviet Union with access to radio transmissions stretching from Kiev to Vladivostok. 
 
The “Chief Designer”, who’s name will remain a secret to ensure his safety, is currently working on new programs to ensure the continued Soviet domination of space.  We ask that all workers and peasants continue to be vigilant and be on the lookout for anyone who may sabotage our peaceful space program.

Sergei Timoshenko
Moscow Desk, International News Network
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