Author Topic: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events  (Read 2417 times)

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Offline ١rgrÝmr

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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #15 on: January 20, 2012, 10:21:53 AM »
« Last Edit: January 21, 2012, 10:33:03 AM by ١rgrÝmr »
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Offline ١rgrÝmr

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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #16 on: January 21, 2012, 10:35:41 AM »
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June 7th - London (INN)

London, England -- "The Space Ministry has announced the intent to continue to place satellites into orbit to test a Global Positioning System for civilian purposes. When asked, the official admits that there could be military uses, but that such was being looked into by the Defense Ministry."

Percy Thistlewaite
London Desk, International News Network
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Offline ١rgrÝmr

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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #17 on: January 21, 2012, 10:38:47 AM »
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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #18 on: January 23, 2012, 11:41:03 AM »
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July 18th - Moscow (INN)

Moscow, USSR -- Late yesterday Party Secretary Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev met with Bachir Hadj Ali, General Secretary of the Algerian Communst Party, to discuss the problems within his nation.  During this meeting, Ali described the opression of the workers and their exploitation by the Imperialist French Government.  Top of their list of discussions was the French facility at Hammaguir which both leaders agree is nothing more than a platform to test weapons of mass destruction.   Secretary Khrushchev also hinted of a major expansion to the Soviet Space Program including sending probes to the Moon.

Sergei Timoshenko
Moscow Desk, International News Network
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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #19 on: January 24, 2012, 11:11:50 AM »
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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #20 on: January 24, 2012, 11:14:52 AM »
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August 28th - Iowa City (INN)

Iowa City, Iowa -- Prior to 1957 scientists were aware that ions and electrons could be trapped by the Earth's magnetic field, but not that such trapped particles actually existed. At most it was proposed that during magnetic storms a temporary trapped population created a ring current, decaying again as the storm ebbed.

The years 1956-7 were, recently, designated as the 'International Geophysical Year' (IGY), and both the USA and Japan prepared to launch artificial satellites, the first ever. The US successfully orbited its first satellite, Explorer I, on 6 September, 1956, built by James Van Allen and his team at the University of Iowa. The Japanese then quickly assembled a rocket carrying a satellite, the small Tengu-Maru-1 built by Tomiichi Mutsu and his team at the University of Tokyo. It was launched on 23 October, 1956.

Explorer 1 carried only one instrument, a small detector of energetic particles, a Geiger counter designed to observe cosmic rays, ions of very high energy and unknown origin, arriving at Earth from distant space. The experiment worked quite well at low altitudes, but at the top of the orbit no particles at all were being counted.

Explorer 3, which followed five months later on 3 February, collected on tape a continuous record of data, which revealed that the zero counts actually represented a very high level of radiation. So many energetic particles hit the counter at the higher altitudes, that its mode of operation was overwhelmed and it fell silent. Not only was a radiation belt present at all times, it was remarkably intense.


The Earth's Radiation Belts

"The Earth," Dr. James Van Allen, whom the belts have been named after, stated, "has two regions of trapped fast particles. The inner radiation belt is relatively compact, extending perhaps one Earth radius above the equator," 1 RE = 6371 km or about 4000 miles. "It consists of very energetic protons, a by-product of collisions by cosmic ray ions with atoms of the atmosphere. The number of such ions is relatively small, and the inner belt therefore accumulates slowly, but because trapping near Earth is very stable, rather high intensities are reached, even though their build-up may take years.
   
"Further out is the large region of the ring current, containing ions and electrons of much lower energy, the most energetic amongst them are also known as the 'outer radiation belt'. Unlike the inner belt, this population fluctuates widely, rising when magnetic storms inject fresh particles from the tail of the magnetosphere, and then gradually falls off again. The ring current energy is mainly carried by the ions, most of which are protons.

"However, one also sees in the ring current 'alpha particles,' atoms of helium which have lost their two electrons, a type of ion that is plentiful in the solar wind. In addition, a certain percentage are O+ oxygen ions, similar to those in the ionosphere of the Earth, although much more energetic. This mixture of ions suggests that ring current particles probably come from more than one source."


Implictions for Future Space Travel

Missions beyond low earth orbit will leave the protection of the earth's geomagnetic field, and will have to transit the Van Allen belts. Thus they will need to be shielded against exposure to cosmic rays, Van Allen radiation, or solar flares. According to Dr. Van Allen the region between two to four earth radii lies between the two radiation belts and is sometimes referred to as the 'safe zone'.

Electronics of all kind, and all kinds of sensors, can be damaged by these radiation belts. Geomagnetic storms can damage electronic components on any future spacecraft. The new transistor style electronics will, in all likelyhood, make satellites more vulnerable to radiation, as the total charge in these circuits will now be small enough so as to be comparable with the charge of the incoming ions.

Future electronics on satellites will have be hardened against radiation to operate reliably. Any form of future space telescope, amongst other types of satellites, will need to have its sensors turned off when passing through regions of intense radiation.

According to Dr. Van Allen a satellite shielded by 3 mm of aluminium in an elliptical orbit, 200 by 20,000 miles, passing through the radiation belts will receive about 2,500 rem (25 Sv) per year. Almost all radiation will be received while passing through the inner belt.

As to what this will mean for manned space travel, at this time no one can say. Only time, and experience, will tell.

David Richlen
Science Desk, International News Network
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Offline ١rgrÝmr

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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #21 on: January 25, 2012, 11:07:09 AM »
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October 17th - Beijing (INN)

Beijing, China -- Director Ran Bai of the CNSA has announced the launch of four more communications satellites for February and March of 1978. "The CS-157 is our latest communications satellite design. It features improved power conductors and addresses many errors, that are now corrected. Four more satellites are already planned to be launched next year, but this will most likely be the end of the launches for a while. To any companies that want to use our satellites, two of the five will be dedicated to private uses.

Finally, we fully acknowledge the US, Japan, Russia and any other nations space programs, and we wish all of you good luck in the task of colonizing space." Director Bai's announcement to the public.

Li Zi-yang
Beijing Desk, International News Network
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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #22 on: January 26, 2012, 10:48:19 AM »
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November 12th - London (INN)

London, England -- The Space Minister reports that issues with the EVA Suit project were uncovered during pressure testing last week.

"There was a failure with the layered insulating seals when sufficient air pressure was applied inside the suit to simulate the stress the seals would be under in an airless environment. This failure was deliberately tested for and a correction is already being implemented," said Debra Hackworths, Ministerial Assistant.

She was also proud to report another successful Communications Satellite launch, bringing the total launches in the Merlin series of satellites to six.

Percy Thistlewaite
London Desk, International News Network
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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #23 on: January 26, 2012, 10:54:55 AM »
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November 10th - Tageshima (INN)

Tageshima, Japan -- We do mourn the loss of Hamotaru the guinea pig who was not recovered when the heat shield on his capsule suffered a failure when it collided with a small object on reentry. It is believed that debris from the Lambda L-2A launch vehicle was responsible for the impact.

Tsunayoshi Amagawa
Tokyo Desk, International News Network

Step 3 - Recovery/Landing Failure
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Re: Beyond the Stars!: Dawn of the Space Age Game One Events
« Reply #24 on: January 27, 2012, 09:48:27 AM »
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