I tend to follow the modern approach as well, in my current campaign, as well as the material it was inspired by.
My carrier fleet usually operates very short range, is very fast, has good redundancy, and is only equipped with what it needs for it's mission. Usually this means 1x CV, 3x FF, 3x DE.
The fast frigates are mainly for point defense, the destroyers, especially with the lack of the G in there, do not use missiles, but instead rely on speed and bringing railgun hurt to the enemy, while outfitted with tons of armor. Literally.
It is kind of a wasteful approach, as I have to get the Destroyers back to home base to refit their armor, but it works out. The Destroyers as a group are faster than my fighters as a group, but when I separate the fighters, I got quite a few very fast ones, twice as fast as the Destroyers, but armed to the teeth.
My fighters usually, regardless of material, follow similar doctrine to how I build my carrier fleets. Strong armor, a bit slower speed, and they are usually outfitted for the missions they take part in. This means:
Long Range Scout: It is a fighter, <= 500 tons, that can operate on billion kilometer ranges, has a very small TCS and emits no EM radiation. It doubles as a spy, and when that is done, I usually put it on EMCON and run it a lot slower than it can go. It usually detects by passives, or a large active which I only turn on when in combat.
Chaser/Interceptor: A fighter, <= 500, equipped to go short ranges, very fast, hit hard and take names. It is the type of fighter I usually end up replacing because in the absence of other fighters to fight, I send it against Destroyers, and it can deal a lot of damage before it has to limp back home.
Brawler non-specialist: A FAC, <= 1000, usually 800 tons; Goes fast, has PD, has a big railgun/laser, equipped with all sorts of sensor equipment, very low range. These guys usually defend my Carriers when I have to send the Frigates forward. They can also take on a Destroyer, and when coordinated with the other types, they can even win that fight.
I know these types are a bit too ambiguous and general, but that is usually the thought process involved when I design my fleet. These are usually the three components that I need for successful carrier operations. Long Range Patrols, Fast Intercept and something that can brawl.